招投标中评标方式有几种？ How many ways are there in bid evaluation?
1 、 评标方法及分析 1. Evaluation method and analysis
我国目前评标普通采用两种评标办法：综合评标法和最低价中标评标法。 China currently adopts two methods of bid evaluation: comprehensive bid evaluation method and lowest bid winning bid evaluation method.
综合评标法是按照招标文件设定的不同分值权重分别对投标人的技术标和商务标进行评分，按照得分或评标价高低推荐中标候选人。 The comprehensive bid evaluation method is to score the bidder's technical bid and business bid according to different point weights set in the bidding documents, and recommend the winning candidate according to the score or the bid evaluation price.
最低价中标评标法则先进行第一阶段技术标的评审，确定符合招标文件的投标，再进行第二阶段的商务标评审，选择符合条件的最低报价的投标的单位作为中标单位。 The lowest price winning bid evaluation rule is to conduct the first stage technical bid review to determine the bids that meet the bidding documents, and then to conduct the second stage commercial bid review, and select the unit with the lowest bid that meets the conditions as the winning unit.
因此，技术标评审和商务标评审是招标评审的两个不可缺少的环节。 Therefore, technical bid review and business bid review are two indispensable links in bidding review.
技术标评审 Technical Standard Review
技术标评审通常评审投标人承诺的拟投入本工程的技术人员、设备的配置情况，以及投标人制定的施工方案中的关键工序、技术方案是否严密、可靠、有效，从而评价投标人的技术能力；评审投标人主要管理人员素质和安全生产保障措施与招标文件规定的质量与进度要求的符合程度，从而评价投标人的管理水平。 The technical bid review usually reviews the technical personnel and equipment configuration promised by the bidder, and whether the key procedures and technical plans in the construction plan formulated by the bidder are rigorous, reliable, and effective, so as to evaluate the bidder's technical capabilities. ; Review the quality of the bidder's main management personnel and the safety production measures and the quality and schedule requirements specified in the bidding documents, so as to evaluate the bidder's management level.
技术标分为施工方案、施工工期、工程质量以及项目经理及班子的配备四项，分别对各项内容评定并打分。 The technical standard is divided into four items: construction plan, construction period, project quality, and the allocation of the project manager and team. Each content is evaluated and scored. 技术标评审规定每项内容经评定合格才能进行下项评定，或者评审总分必须达到满分的６０％，才能进入下一阶段的评审。 Technical standard review stipulates that each content must pass the assessment before the next assessment, or the total score of the assessment must reach 60% of the full score before entering the next stage of assessment.
对技术标应进行以下各项分析： The following analysis shall be performed on technical standards:
（一）施工方案 (I) Construction plan
１、施工方案及平面布置合理性； 1. Reasonable construction plan and plan layout;
２、施工进度计划及保证措施； 2. Construction schedule and guarantee measures;
３、质量、安全措施及质量保证体系； 3. Quality, safety measures and quality assurance system;
４、文明施工措施。 4. Civilized construction measures.
（二）施工工期 (Two) construction period
１、工期满足招标文件要求； 1. The construction period meets the requirements of the bidding documents;
２、对工期有承诺及有违约经济处罚措施。 2. Commitment to the construction period and economic penalty measures for breach of contract.
（三）工程质量 (Three) project quality
１、工程质量符合招标文件要求； 1. The quality of the project meets the requirements of the bidding documents;
２、对质量有承诺，有违约经济处罚措施。 2. Commitment to quality and economic penalty measures for breach of contract.
（四）项目经理及项目班子的配备 (D) Project manager and project team
１、有与承担本工程项目相适应的项目经理； 1. Have a project manager suitable for the project;
２、近年来获各级优质工程奖、工程安全奖、优秀项目经理的情况； 2. In recent years, the situation of winning various levels of quality engineering awards, engineering safety awards, and outstanding project managers;
３、项目施工班子配备情况。 3. The equipment of the project construction team.
商务标评审 Business Standard Review
商务标评审是按照招标文件规定的计算方法，采用直线内插法计算投标报价得分。 The evaluation of commercial bidding is based on the calculation method specified in the bidding documents, and the straight line interpolation method is used to calculate the bid quotation score. 目前评标过程中普遍采用两种计算方法：一种是以标底（或业主的期望值）为基准，以所有投标单位报价的平均值（或剔除不合理报价后的平均值）为依据，计算两者的中间价，作为投报标价得分的最高价；另一种是以经过评审、剔除不合理价格后的最低投标报价，作为投标报价得分的最高价。 At present, two calculation methods are generally used in the bid evaluation process: one is based on the bid base (or the owner's expected value) as the basis and the average value of all bidding unit bids (or the average value after excluding unreasonable bids) as the basis. The median price of the bidder is used as the highest price of the bid price score; the other is the lowest bid price after reviewing and excluding unreasonable prices as the highest price of the bid price score.
对投标报价进行以下各项分析： Perform the following analyses on bid quotes:
（一）投标报价数据计算的正确性 (1) Correctness of calculation of bid quote data
１、报价的范围和内容是否有遗漏或修改； 1. Whether the scope and content of the offer have been omitted or modified;
２、报价中每一单项价格计算是否正确等。 2. Whether the calculation of each single price in the quote is correct.
（二）报价构成的合理性 (2) Reasonable composition
１、通过分析投标报价中有关前期费用、管理费用、主体工程和各专业工程项目价格，判断投标报价是否合理； 1. Judging whether the bidding price is reasonable by analyzing the relevant up-front costs, management costs, main works and the prices of major professional projects in the bidding price;
２、对没有名义工程量，只填单价的机械台班费和人工费，进行合理性分析； 2. Perform a rationality analysis on the mechanical unit shift and labor costs for which there is no nominal engineering quantity and only the unit price;
３、分析投标书中所附的各阶段的资金需求计划是否与施工进度计划相一致。 3. Analyze whether the funding requirements plan of each stage attached to the bid is consistent with the construction schedule.
（三）对建议方案的商务评审 (3) Business review of the proposed scheme
１、分析投标书中提出的财务或付款方面的建议； 1. Analysis of financial or payment suggestions made in the bid;
２、估计接受这些建议的利弊及可能导致的风险。 2. Estimate the pros and cons of accepting these recommendations and the possible risks.
（四）在评审过程中， 评标委员会发现投标人的报价明显低于其它投标报价，使得其投标报价可能低于其个别成本的，应当要求该投标人作出书面说明，并提供相关证明材料。 (4) During the evaluation process, if the bid evaluation committee finds that the bidder's price is significantly lower than other bids, which may make its bid price lower than its individual cost, it shall require the bidder to provide a written explanation and provide relevant certification materials. 投标人不能作出合理说明或者提供相关证明材料的，由评标委员会认定该投标人以低于成本报价竞争，其投标应作废标处理。 If the bidder fails to provide a reasonable explanation or provide relevant certification materials, the bid evaluation committee shall determine that the bidder is competing at a lower cost than the bid price, and its bid shall be disregarded.
2 、 评标方法的讨论和建议 2. Discussion and suggestions on bid evaluation methods
不合理价格 Unreasonable price
在评标过程中剔除不合理价，不应简单的剔除报价最高价和最低价，而应剔除低于个别成本的低价和超过标底的高价。 In the bid evaluation process, unreasonable prices should be eliminated, and the highest and lowest prices should not be simply removed, but the lower prices lower than the individual costs and the higher prices exceeding the bid bottom should be eliminated.
招标人和投标人都会发现一个现象，即开标时标底价格普遍偏高。 Tenderers and bidders will find a phenomenon that the bottom price is generally high when the bid is opened. 如果在标底编制过程中，定位在投标企业平均水平，标底的准确性肯定会好些，但是编制标底的咨询单位，对施工企业内部的财务状况、管理水平以及投标策略等是知之不多的，对工程的现场施工定额测定工作则（下转第４２页）（上接第３０页）需要漫长的时间。 If the bidding company is positioned at the average level of the bidding enterprise during the preparation of the bidding base, the accuracy of the bidding base will definitely be better, but the consulting unit that compiles the bidding base does not know much about the internal financial status, management level and bidding strategy of the construction enterprise. The on-site construction quota measurement of the project (continued on page 42) (continued on page 30) takes a long time. 因此，招标的标底一般套用全国统一概预算定额和地区单位估价表，参照概预算取费标准，反映的是本行业本地区企业的平均水平，所以标底价格自然偏高。 Therefore, the bidding base is generally based on the unified national budget estimate and regional unit valuation table, and the reference fee collection standard refers to the average level of enterprises in the industry and the region, so the base price is naturally high.
然而，招标就是择优，如果投标单位的报价高于标底，则说明该企业的技术水平和经营管理水平达不到本地区的平均水平，则该企业不能算优秀，不能成为中标企业。 However, bidding is to select the best. If the bidder's quotation is higher than the bottom of the bid, it means that the technical level and management level of the enterprise cannot reach the average level in the region, then the enterprise cannot be regarded as excellent and cannot become a winning enterprise.
因此，标底可以用来作为限制报价最高价的依据，而不应作为确定评分标准的依据。 Therefore, the bid base can be used as a basis for limiting the maximum price of the offer, and should not be used as a basis for determining the scoring criteria. 另外，建立在标底基础上的业主的期望值也是不可靠的。 In addition, the owner's expectations based on the base bid are also unreliable. 如果以标底价为评标的依据，只会偏向于投标报价高的投标企业。 If the base price is used as the basis for evaluating the bids, only the bidding companies with high bidding prices will be biased.
如果某企业的报价最低，我们也不能简单认为其是不合理价格。 If a company's offer is the lowest, we cannot simply consider it to be an unreasonable price. 按照《招标投标法》的规定，投标价不能低于其成本。 According to the "Tendering and Bidding Law", the bid price cannot be lower than its cost. 但这里所指的成本，应该理解为投标人自己的个别成本，而不是社会平均成本。 But the cost referred to here should be understood as the individual cost of the bidder itself, not the average social cost. 由于投标人技术和管理等方面的原因，其个别成本有可能低于社会平均成本，投标人以低于社会平均成本但不低于其个别成本的价格投标，是应该受到保护和鼓励的。 Due to technical and management reasons of bidders, their individual costs may be lower than the average social cost. Bidders who bid at prices lower than the average social cost but not lower than their individual costs should be protected and encouraged. 如果投标人的价格低于自己的个别成本，则意味着投标人取得合同后，可能为了节省开支而想方设法偷工减料、粗制滥造，给招标人造成不可挽回的损失。 If the bidder's price is lower than his own individual cost, it means that after the bidder obtains the contract, he may find ways to cut corners and cut materials in order to save expenses, causing irreparable losses to the bidder. 如果投标人以排挤其他竞争对手为目的，而以低于其个别成本的价格，则构成低价倾销的不正当竞争行为，违反我国《价格法》和《反不正当竞争法》的有关规定。 If the bidder seeks to crowd out other competitors, but at a price lower than its individual cost, it constitutes unfair competition in dumping at low prices and violates the relevant provisions of China's "Price Law" and "Anti-Unfair Competition Law". 因此，评标委员应认真审核投标企业的报价是否低于其个别成本，特别防止出现低标反而低于个别成本的情况出现。 Therefore, the bid evaluation committee should carefully check whether the bid price of the bidding enterprise is lower than its individual cost, especially to prevent the occurrence of low bids but lower than individual costs.
施工方案 Construction plan
对施工方案的评定，应以能看出施工企业的技术水平和管理水平为主。 The evaluation of the construction plan should be based on the technical level and management level of the construction enterprise.
在技术标评审中，一方面评标因素在量化处理过程中，方法简单绝对，主观色彩强，对为准备投标而在人财物方面投入很大的投标企业来说，不够客观公正；另一方面随着计算机技术的应用，大多数投标企业都会将以往的投标文件存档，以便不断的补充修正，因此，厚厚一本技术标文件，并不是投标企业专门为本投标工程而作，其施工组织设计或施工方案已不能反映投标企业的真实情况，不少施工企业的技术标文件给人一种雷同的感觉。 In the evaluation of technical bids, on the one hand, in the process of quantifying the bid evaluation factors, the method is simple and absolute, and subjective, and it is not objective and fair for bidding companies that have invested heavily in human resources and property in preparation for bidding; With the application of computer technology, most bidding companies will archive past bidding documents so as to continuously supplement and amend them. Therefore, a thick technical bid document is not a bidding company that specializes in bidding projects. Its construction organization The design or construction plan can no longer reflect the real situation of the bidding enterprise, and many of the technical bid documents of the construction company give a similar feeling.
数量有限的专家要在有限的时间里，对所有投标文件的施工方案给出评分，这样容易分散评委的精力和时间，丧失了评标方向和重点。 A limited number of experts must give a rating to the construction plans of all bidding documents in a limited time, which will easily distract the judges' energy and time, and lose the direction and focus of bid evaluation. 因此，笔者建议技术评委在评标时，应侧重于评审施工技术文件，针对本工程特点采取的质量安全保证体系及措施、主要机具设备及人员专业构成、工期进度安排及保证措施、安全生产及文明施工措施等内容，而对必须严格按照操作规程进行施工的施工工艺和施工方法等内容只进行简单评审。 Therefore, the author recommends that technical evaluation committees should focus on reviewing construction technical documents, quality and safety assurance systems and measures adopted for the characteristics of the project, major equipment and personnel professional composition, construction schedule and guarantee measures, safety production and Civilized construction measures, etc., and only simple review of construction techniques and methods that must be carried out in accordance with operating procedures.
质量与工期评分的主要依据是投标企业的承诺。 The main basis for quality and duration scoring is the commitment of the bidder. 事实上，参与技术标评审的所有的投标企业有关质量与工期的承诺多是符合投标文件要求的，否则不能实质性响应招标文件要求，因此这项打分无现实意义，建议取消。 In fact, all the bidding companies participating in the technical bid review are mostly in compliance with the bidding document requirements, otherwise they will not be able to respond substantially to the bidding document requirements, so this scoring has no practical significance and is recommended to be cancelled.
项目经理评分大有奖励性质，在评审中争议较大。 The project manager's ratings are rewarding and controversial in the review. 该项评审要求提供项目经理近年内承担的类似规模工程的合同原件以及竣工验收证书等材料，有的投标企业为了得分，伪造假合同、纂改竣工验收证书等现象时有发生。 This review requires the provision of original contract of similar scale projects undertaken by the project manager in recent years, as well as materials such as the completion acceptance certificate. Some bidding companies forge scores, forge fake contracts, compile and modify the completion acceptance certificate, etc. 建议在评审时，着重审查资料的真实性，并对造假者采取严厉措施。 It is recommended that during the review, the authenticity of the information be reviewed and strict measures taken against counterfeiters. 如果在资格预审时，对项目经理有相关的要求，则该项评审内容重复，建议取消。 If there are relevant requirements for the project manager during the pre-qualification review, the review content is repeated and it is recommended to cancel.
如何在招投标中增加中标率？ How to increase the winning rate in bidding?
1 中招投标方法分析 Analysis of bidding methods in 1
《中华人民共和国招标投标法》规定：全部或者部分使用国有资金投资或者国家融资项目的勘察、设计、施工、监理以及与工程建设有关的重要设备、材料等的采购，必须进行招标。 The "Tendering and Bidding Law of the People's Republic of China" stipulates that all or part of the survey, design, construction, supervision, and procurement of important equipment and materials related to engineering construction using state-owned funds for investment or state-financed projects must be subject to bidding.
目前，建设工程招标一般采用有标底和无标底招标两种方法。 At present, bidding for construction projects generally uses two methods: bidding with and without bidding.
有标底招标法就是招标者在开始招标之前，根据设计图纸、预算定额等预先计算出工程的价格，并以此为标底。 The bidding method with a tender base is that before the tender starts, the bidder calculates the price of the project in advance according to the design drawings, budget quotas, etc., and uses this as the tender base. 在对项目进行评标时，以标底为基准，对参与投标的单位的报价进行打分的一种方法。 A method of scoring the bids of bidding units based on the base of the bid when evaluating the bid of a project. 无标底招标法就是招标者在招标中不做标底，施工单位投标书实质上响应招标文件要求而评标价格又最低便可以中标。 The non-bid bottom bidding method is that the bidder does not make a bid bottom in the bidding, and the bid of the construction unit actually responds to the requirements of the bidding documents and the bid evaluation price is the lowest.
无标底招标法和有标底招标法各自都具有优势，同时也存在弊端。 Both the bid-less method and the bid-less method have advantages and disadvantages. 无标底招标法会造成招标者很难控制工程的价格，对工程造价心中无底。 The bid-less method will make it difficult for bidders to control the price of the project, and they have no confidence in the cost of the project. 但是对于有标底招标法存在编制、审核过程容易泄露的负面因素。 However, for the bidding method with a bid bottom, there are negative factors that are easy to leak during the compilation and review process. 综上所述，这两种方法都不完美。 To sum up, neither method is perfect. 在招投标实践过程中，总结出了一个招标方法，叫做标底价公示法，这种标招方法既可有效将造价降低，还可以不必要担心是否泄漏了标底。 In the process of bidding practice, a bidding method was summed up, called the floor price publicity method. This method of bidding can not only effectively reduce the cost, but also you need not worry about whether the floor is leaked.
标底价公示法招标是按目前预算编制方法编制的标底作为工程项目最高限价。 Bid price public bidding method is based on the bid price prepared by the current budget preparation method as the maximum price of the project. 标底价公示法要求施工单位在知晓标底价的基础上，不要将报价低于单位的成本价，更不能比公告的标底价还要高，然后在招标中优选合适的单位中标。 The base price publicity method requires that the construction unit, on the basis of knowing the base price, do not lower the quoted price below the unit's cost price, nor can it be higher than the announced base price, and then select the appropriate unit to win the bid.
2 影响投标竞争力的因素 2 Factors Affecting Bidding Competitiveness
施工企业在投标活动中能够充分展示自己的施工实力及其他综合素质。 Construction enterprises can fully demonstrate their construction strength and other comprehensive qualities in the bidding activities. 通过科学合理的投标策略在投标过程中脱颖而出，获取施工项目中标机会。 Use scientific and reasonable bidding strategies to stand out in the bidding process and obtain bidding opportunities for construction projects. 究竟哪些因素影响投标竞争力呢？ What factors affect bidding competitiveness?
（一）经营决策班子是否健全 (I) Whether the management decision-making team is sound
企业经营决策班子如果没有固定的造价专业人员和技术管理人员，班子就形同虚设，无法系统管理，缺乏凝聚力。 If there is no fixed cost professional and technical management staff in the business decision-making team, the team is useless and cannot be managed systematically and lacks cohesion.
（二）是否具备竞争优势 (2) Whether it has a competitive advantage
如果参与投标的施工单位在平时不能够完善技术资料，不研究竞争对手的资料及投标，闭门造车，那么最终则会导致投标商的投标方案无法向招标人展现出自己在施工工艺及实力水准上的优势，无法与竞争对手一较高下。 If the construction unit participating in the bidding cannot normally improve the technical data, do not study the competitor's data and bidding, and build the car behind closed doors, then the bidder's bidding scheme will eventually fail to show the bidders their construction technology and strength Advantages cannot compete with competitors.
（三）工期、质量、安全措施是否合理 (3) Whether the construction period, quality and safety measures are reasonable
工期、质量、安全三大指标往往是影响中标的重大因素。 The three major indicators of construction period, quality, and safety are often the major factors affecting the successful bid. 招标人在一些具有战略决定意义或季节性的施工项目上往往会对施工的工期严格要求。 Tenderers often have strict requirements on the construction period on some strategically or seasonal construction projects. “ 百年大计，质量第一 ” ，质量、安全是项目实施的灵魂所在，投标企业必须做出可靠承诺，忽视或是不实质地响应招标要求，势必严重影响评标结果。 "A hundred-year plan, quality first " . Quality and safety are the soul of project implementation. Bidding companies must make reliable commitments, neglecting or not responding to tendering requirements, which will seriously affect the evaluation results.
（四）投标报价策略决策是否正确 (D) whether the bidding strategy decision is correct
投标报价虽不是决定中标与否的唯一因素，但却是第一因素。 Although the bid price is not the only factor that determines whether to win or not, it is the first factor. 投标商的第一目标是为了获得最大的利润，而招标者的目标则是在获得预期效果的情况下尽可能降低投资金额。 The first goal of the bidder is to obtain the maximum profit, and the goal of the bidder is to reduce the investment amount as much as possible while achieving the expected results.
决定投标单位是否进入评标阶段甚至击败对手拿到项目的武器便是投标单位的报价策略。 Deciding whether the bidding unit enters the bid evaluation stage or even defeats the weapon that the opponent gets to the project is the bidding strategy of the bidding unit.
在投标活动中，企业的投标文件也体现着自己的投标竞争力。 In the bidding activities, the bidding documents of the enterprises also reflected their bidding competitiveness. 投标文件共有两个主体，首先便是关于商务资信（主要有类似项目案例及业绩表、单位概况表、获奖的工程证书复印件、承装（修、试）、安全生产等许可证以及资质证书、营业执照等。）施工组织设计、法定代表人授权委托书、投标书等规定的各种资料。 There are two main bodies in the bidding documents. The first is about commercial credit (mainly similar project cases and performance tables, unit overview tables, copies of award-winning engineering certificates, installation (repair, trial), production safety and other licenses, and qualification certificates. , Business license, etc.) Various materials specified in the design of the construction organization, the power of attorney for the legal representative, and the tender. 第二部分包括工程量与报价，主要是工程概况、工程量清单及图纸等资料。 The second part includes the project quantity and quotation, which is mainly the project overview, project quantity list and drawings.
3 、 如何在招投标中增加中标率 3. How to increase the winning rate in bidding
（一）投标文件要突出专业性 (1) Bid documents must be professional
施工单位如何编制参与投标的相关文件很重要，因为其中可以看出该单位是否具备相应的实力，其管理是否规范达标。 It is important for the construction unit to prepare relevant documents for participating in the bidding, because it can be seen whether the unit has the corresponding strength and whether its management is up to standard. 由于招标者越来越重视评审技术标书，对技术标书的要求越来越苛刻，参与投标的投标商也不得不对技术标书重视起来，开始对标书花费大量的人力物力。 As bidders pay more and more attention to the evaluation of technical tenders, and the requirements for technical tenders become more and more demanding, bidders participating in bidding have to pay attention to technical tenders and begin to spend a lot of manpower and resources on tenders. 指定专人来编写技术文件，这样在标书编写以及投标的过程中才能不断积累经验，获得招标单位的赏识。 Designate a special person to write technical documents, so that in the process of preparing bids and bidding, you can continuously accumulate experience and gain appreciation from the bidding unit. 要想编制出一份能获得合同的标书可不是件容易的事，除了要对招标文件仔细地研究阅读，理解招标者的意图，还要尽可能地满足招标者对于质量安全进度等方面的要求。 It is not easy to prepare a bid that can obtain a contract. In addition to carefully studying and reading the tender documents, understanding the tenderer's intentions, it is also necessary to meet the tenderer's requirements for quality and safety progress as much as possible. .
（二）运用报价技巧增加中标率 (2) Increase bid winning rate with quotation techniques
在投标报价中所使用的技巧是一种可以增加其中标率的技能和谋略，在投标过程中使用一些合规的技巧可以增加投标企业的中标概率和增加利润。 The technique used in bidding quotation is a skill and strategy that can increase the winning rate. Using some compliant techniques in the bidding process can increase the probability of winning the bid and increase profits. 这里结合实际简要介绍几种报价技巧。 Here is a brief introduction to several quoting techniques combined with the actual situation.
1. 不平衡报价法 Unbalanced quote method
该方法是在不提高总报价的前提下达到中标的目的。 This method achieves the purpose of winning the bid without increasing the total price. 一般是在确定总的报价之后，再调整总报价中的各单项工程的单价。 Generally, after the total price is determined, the unit price of each individual project in the total price is adjusted. 采用这种报价方法时，要根据工程项目不同特点及施工条件等选择。 When using this quotation method, it is necessary to choose according to different characteristics of the project and construction conditions. 它有三方面的选择： It has three options:
首先，预计工程量在施工图阶段增加或者招标工程量不明确的项目，其投标单价可以适当提高，这样在工程最终结算时可以适当增加费用。 First of all, it is expected that the project volume will increase during the construction drawing stage or the bidding project volume is not clear, the bid unit price can be appropriately increased, so that the cost can be appropriately increased when the project is finally settled. 对一些工程内容解释不清楚或预计工程量减少的项目，可适当降低其单价，这样在结算的时候便可以降低损失。 For some projects with unclear explanation of the project content or expected reduction in the project volume, the unit price can be appropriately reduced, so that losses can be reduced at the time of settlement. 比如珠海明源机电工程有限公司中标的仁恒星园配电工程，招标采用的是根据设计图纸工程量进行综合单价报价，形成的虚拟总价作为投标总价，工程竣工后按照实际施工工程量进行结算。 For example, Zhuhai Mingyuan Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd. won the bid for the Renheng Xingyuan Power Distribution Project. The bidding is based on the comprehensive unit price quotation based on the design drawing quantity. Settlement. 所以在投标的过程中，我们采用的方法是不平衡报价法，就是说，在总价不变时，我们通过降低高低压电缆等工程量预计会减少的单价，但是对于变压器、高低压柜的单价则适当提高。 Therefore, in the bidding process, the method we adopted is the unbalanced quotation method, that is, when the total price is unchanged, we are expected to reduce the unit price of high- and low-voltage cables and other engineering quantities, but for transformers, high- and low-voltage cabinets, etc. The unit price is appropriately increased. 又比如明珠路、港昌路道路改造工程管线迁移工程 ——10KV 电力安装工程投标，其拆迁的工程量为单价报价，须根据工程施工中由设计、监理、业主、中标单位四方联合确定其拆迁量，结算时依据该工程量办理结算，当我们与设计单位进行了解并经现场调查，确认其拆迁量有一定的余度。 Another example is the pipeline relocation project of Mingzhu Road and Gangchang Road Road Reconstruction Project— 10KV power installation project bidding. The demolition volume is a unit price quotation. The demolition must be jointly determined by the design, supervision, owner, and winning bidders during the construction of the project. The amount will be settled according to the amount of the project when settling. When we understand with the design unit and conduct an on-site investigation, we confirm that there is a certain degree of demolition. 所以在项目投标时，可以适当地对拆迁单价进行调低，同时对总价进行适当调高，这样结算时便可以减少损失。 Therefore, when bidding for a project, you can appropriately lower the demolition unit price and at the same time appropriately increase the total price, so that losses can be reduced during settlement.
其次，降低工期靠后的项目报价，同时提高工期靠前的项目的报价。 Secondly, lower the quotation for projects with a later construction period and increase the quotation for projects with a later construction period. 例如，一些公司的资金周转不开，便可以适当地提高基础工程或者土石方工程的报价，这样便可以有效地降低公司的资金周转问题。 For example, the capital turnover of some companies cannot be opened, and the quotation of foundation engineering or earthwork can be appropriately raised, so that the company's capital turnover can be effectively reduced.
最后，暂定项目或可选择项目，在国际工程经常有这方面的报价，报价时需要具体分析。 Finally, tentative or optional projects are often quoted in international engineering, and detailed analysis is required when quoting. 这一类型的项目是否要实施是在项目开工后由招标者决定的，对于不一定实施的工程项目则可以相应地降低其单价，同时适当增加肯定要实施的工程项目的单价。 Whether this type of project is to be implemented is decided by the tenderer after the project is started. For projects that are not necessarily implemented, the unit price can be reduced accordingly, while the unit price of the projects that are definitely implemented must be appropriately increased. 因此针对该项报价需要慎重考虑，以免引起损失。 Therefore, careful consideration must be given to the quotation to avoid loss.
2. 不同报价法 2. Different quote methods
根据招标项目的不同特点采取不同的报价。 Take different quotations according to the different characteristics of the bidding project. 报价不仅要考虑施工的条件，还要具体分析工程实际情况，更要考虑到自身的情况，正所谓知己知彼，百战不殆。 The quotation must not only consider the conditions of the construction, but also analyze the actual situation of the project in detail, but also consider its own situation. 对一些如工程施工量大、工程竞争激烈、招标者信誉良好以及施工条件优良的工程我们可以适当地降低标书中的报价。 For some projects with large construction volume, fierce competition, good reputation of bidders and good construction conditions, we can appropriately reduce the quotation in the bid. 对于具有独特优势的工程，山地工程、跨河流工程、技术难度大以及专业要求高或施工条件差的工程，自己不愿意参与或不方便投标的工程、工期紧迫的工程等等，我们可以调高其报价。 For projects with unique advantages, mountain projects, river crossing projects, technically difficult projects with high professional requirements or poor construction conditions, projects that are unwilling to participate in or inconvenient to bid, projects with tight deadlines, etc., we can increase them Its a quote.
3. 多方案报价 3. Multi-plan quote
对一些相关条款不够清晰、不够客观公正，施工的范围比较模糊等，我们在报价时可多报几个价格。 For some related clauses that are not clear enough, objective and fair, and the scope of construction is vague, etc., we can quote a few more prices when quoting. 对于这样的工程可以按原标书报一个价，同时准备一个假如出现某些情况降多少的报价，以便吸引业主。 For such a project, a price can be quoted according to the original bid, and a quotation will be prepared if there are certain circumstances, in order to attract owners.
4. 增加建议方案报价 4. Increase proposal price
有时招标文件规定，可以对原方案提出建议报价。 Sometimes the tender documents provide that a proposal can be made for the original proposal. 投标单位在投标过程中，需要组织专业人员对招标的文件、施工方案进行详尽分析。 During the bidding process, bidding units need to organize professionals to conduct detailed analysis of the bidding documents and construction plans. 针对施工方案以及招标文件两个资料，研究出最符合自己利益，同时又保证业主要求的方案，通过降低工期或总的建造价格来吸引招标者。 Aiming at the two documents of the construction plan and the bidding documents, we have worked out the plan that best suits our own interests, while at the same time guaranteeing the owner's requirements. Attracting bidders by reducing the construction period or the total construction price.
5. 突然降价法 5. Sudden price reduction
在进行最后的投标者交流中，利用真真假假的消息迷惑竞争对手，在其他投标者面前故意报出高价和不屑于中意标段，但是却在最后时间突然调整报价，达到击败对手的目的。 In the final exchange of bidders, the real and false 一定牛彩票网 was used to confuse competitors, and deliberately reported high prices and disdain for the bids in the Italian and Italian bids in front of other bidders, but suddenly adjusted the quotes at the last time to defeat the opponent. . 这种报价方法，一定要充分分析和判断各种情况，再作最后决策。 This quotation method must be fully analyzed and judged before making a final decision.
6. 无利润投标法 6. Non-profit bidding method
为了一个分期建设项目或者打入一个新市场，我们可以通过降低价格来获得首期项目，为以后竞争创造机会及优势，取得后期更大的利润。 In order to build a project in phases or enter a new market, we can obtain the first phase of the project by reducing the price, creating opportunities and advantages for future competition, and achieving greater profits in the later stages.
全面开放工程市场以后，施工单位主要通过投标来获得工程项目的合约。 After the engineering market is fully opened, the construction unit mainly obtains the contract of the engineering project through bidding. 建立一个公正、公平、公开的工程招投标市场是大势所趋。 It is the general trend to establish a fair, fair and open engineering bidding market. 在今后的市场竞争中，要想立于不败地位并获得更大的利润，施工单位必须要降低企业定额与消耗，同时还要加强人力资源管理，提高自身的竞争能力，这是中标并盈利的最根本方法。 In the future market competition, in order to stand unbeaten and obtain greater profits, the construction unit must reduce the company's quota and consumption, and at the same time strengthen human resource management and improve its own competitiveness. This is a successful bid and profit The most fundamental method. 但施工企业绝对不可忽视具体招投标中的策略和技巧的应用，并需培养一批高素质的招投标人才。 However, construction enterprises must not ignore the application of strategies and techniques in specific bidding, and need to cultivate a group of high-quality bidding talents.
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