I. Compiling Project Overview
在编制工程施工招标文件时，工程概况叙述的目的在于帮助潜在投标人了解工程项目情况。 When compiling tender documents for construction, the purpose of project description is to help potential bidders understand the project situation. 主要内容包括招标人名称、工程名称、地点、规模、地质地貌、气候条件、现场情况、工程情况（结构类型、建筑物构筑物形式及数量、层数、主要建筑内容、对周边环境要求、设计标准）、建设前期准备情况和地质资料等。 The main contents include the bidder's name, project name, location, scale, geomorphology, climatic conditions, site conditions, and engineering conditions (structure type, building structure form and number, number of floors, main building content, surrounding environment requirements, and design standards ), Pre-construction preparations and geological data.
工业建筑工程项目概况的技术要求应描述的更为详细和清楚，如抗渗、防火、耐温、自控系统的特殊要求及所采用的工艺，所安装的设备等。 The technical requirements of the industrial construction project profile should be described in more detail and clear, such as the special requirements of impermeability, fire prevention, temperature resistance, automatic control system, the process used, and the equipment installed. 有些工业建筑项目，其构筑物较多，如多种池类，地下通道、烟囱、塔类、炉体等，技术要求特殊、复杂，一般应按各单位工程载明其特殊要求。 Some industrial construction projects have many structures, such as various types of pools, underground passages, chimneys, towers, furnaces, etc. The technical requirements are special and complex, and their special requirements should generally be stated according to the project of each unit.
在提供了整套设计图纸或施工图纸并提供了工程量清单后，工程概况可以写的简要些，但要把工程项目情况、地质地貌、气候条件、建筑规模、特点写出来，让投标人基本能在工程概况中了解到项目大体情况。 After providing a complete set of design drawings or construction drawings and a list of engineering quantities, the project profile can be written briefly, but the project conditions, geomorphology, climatic conditions, building scale and characteristics should be written so that bidders can basically Understand the general situation of the project in the project overview. 招标文件发售时，除发给潜在投标人全套施工图纸外，如港口、码头、桥梁等特殊工程，还应附工程附近的海域图和施工地点工程区形势图等。 When the bidding documents are sold, in addition to a full set of construction drawings issued to potential bidders, such as ports, wharves, bridges and other special projects, a map of the sea area near the project and a situation map of the construction area of the construction site should be attached.
二、投标资质审定 Bid Qualification
投标人的资质一般在发公告和资格预审时明确规定，未进行资格预审的招标项目在招标文件中还应注明对投标人投标资格的要求和资格审查的程序及方式。 The qualifications of bidders are generally specified in the announcement and pre-qualification review. The bidding documents that have not been pre-qualified should also indicate the bidding qualification requirements and the procedures and methods of qualification review in the bidding documents.
投标人资格的审查和资质等级的要求应根据行业、工程类别、工程规模、结构形式、复杂难易程度、工期、工程质量的要求审定。 The bidder qualification review and qualification level requirements shall be reviewed and approved in accordance with the requirements of industry, project category, project size, structural form, complexity and difficulty, construction period, and project quality. 企业应熟悉建设行政主管部门制定的各施工企业资质等级及经营范围的条件，依工程类别（面积或体积）、复杂难易程度（结构复杂、钢结构多、大跨度、高耸、机电设备安装复杂）、工期要求、分部分项质量要求（如抗渗、耐热、防辐射、抗震等），施工条件恶劣（高温、场地狭窄、流沙、大水量和生产交叉等）等内容综合考虑，共同确定适宜本工程的施工企业资质等级，以满足工程需要。 Enterprises should be familiar with the qualification levels and operating scopes of each construction enterprise formulated by the construction administrative department, according to the type of project (area or volume), the degree of complexity (complex structure, multiple steel structures, large spans, towering towers, and complicated installation of electromechanical equipment) ), Construction period requirements, sub-item quality requirements (such as impermeability, heat resistance, radiation protection, earthquake resistance, etc.), harsh construction conditions (high temperature, narrow site, quicksand, large amount of water, and production crossover, etc.) are comprehensively considered and determined. It is suitable for the qualification level of the construction company to meet the needs of the project.
对于投标人的资质等级要求，应分清是施工总承包资质，还是专业承包资质，看其覆盖穿插情况。 As for the bidder's qualification level requirements, it should be distinguished whether it is a general contractor qualification or a professional contractor qualification, and its coverage is interspersed.
级别等级不能设定太高，以免将有实力又经济的潜在投标人排除在外，或投标人不够法定开标人数，更不能含有歧视条件和按个人意向设定。 The level can not be set too high, so as to avoid the potential and powerful bidders, or the number of bidders is not enough to open the bids, let alone discriminatory conditions and set according to personal intentions.
编制招标文件或资格预审文件时对于投标人的资质，一般遵循的原则，先看施工总承包，再看专业承包，再看其他各部、协会颁布的，尽量考虑周全。 When preparing bidding documents or pre-qualification documents, the principles of bidders are generally followed. First, look at the general contracting of construction, then professional contracting, and then those issued by other ministries and associations. 各承包资质的名称和级别一定要写准确，不能出差错，以免引起不必要的纠纷。 The name and level of each contract qualification must be written accurately, and no mistakes can be made to avoid unnecessary disputes.
设定资格要求就捎带说一下资格预审：如果投标人人数不多时按《标准资格预审文件》中要求的 “ 合格制 ” 审定即可，如果考虑投标人太多时，资格预审文件中应公布资审比较的方法（评分法），按照《标准资格预审文件》的 “ 有限数量制 ” 即可。 Set the qualification requirements and talk about pre-qualification: if the number of bidders is not large, it can be verified according to the " qualification system " required in the " standard pre-qualification documents". The comparison method (scoring method) can be based on the " limited quantity system " of the Standard Prequalification Document .
三、踏勘现场和投标预备会 3. Site survey and tender preparation meeting
首先，应在招标文件中载明 “ 标前会 ” 和 “ 踏勘现场 ” 的时间、集合地点和是否由投标人自带车辆等内容。 First of all, the bidding documents should specify the time of the “ pre-bid conference ” and “ survey site ” , the meeting place, and whether the bidders should bring their own vehicles. 按照招标文件规定的时间、地点，组织由设计单位和所以购买招标文件的潜在投标人参加的 “ 标前会 ” 和 “ 踏勘现场 ” 。 According to the time and place stipulated in the bidding documents, organize " pre- bid conferences " and " spotting the site " by design units and potential bidders who purchase bidding documents .
为便于操作和节省大家的时间及费用， “ 标前会 ” 和 “ 踏勘现场 ” 最好一起组织，并在招标文件中载明程序和时间以及注意事项等。 In order to facilitate the operation and save everyone's time and costs, it is best to organize the " Pre-bid Conference " and " Survey Site " together, and set out the procedures and time and precautions in the bidding documents. “ 标前会 ” 和 “ 踏勘现场 ” 由四步完成： " Before bidding " and " Survey Site " are completed in four steps:
程序一：组织标前会议，进行项目介绍；程序二：踏勘现场，介绍现场条件；程序三：举行面对面质疑澄清会议；程序四：汇总会议纪要，发放答疑文件。 Procedure 1: Organize a pre-bid conference and introduce the project; Procedure 2: Survey the site and introduce site conditions; Procedure 3: Hold a face-to-face clarification meeting; Procedure 4: Summarize the minutes of the meeting and issue question-and-answer documents.
注：踏勘现场过程中，介绍人介绍现场情况时应让各潜在投标人都听得到，避免一家提问就只给一家讲解，引起大家误会。 Note: In the process of surveying the site, the introducer should make it heard by all potential bidders when introducing the site situation, so as to avoid giving only one explanation to one question, causing misunderstanding.
四、分包 Fourth, subcontracting
招标时最容易疏忽的就是分包。 The easiest thing to overlook when bidding is subcontracting. 经常会碰到没有在工程施工招标文件中说明分包范围和要求，而投标人又聪明地不提醒，在签订和执行合同时太让人头痛了。 It is often encountered that the scope and requirements of subcontracting are not specified in the bidding documents of the project construction, and the bidder is clever not to remind, which is too much headache when signing and executing the contract. 所以，从资格预审到招标投标都应提前将分包的内容明确，将范围划分好，并将对分包人的资格要求提前在资审时审查清楚。 Therefore, from the pre-qualification review to the bidding and tendering, the content of subcontracting should be clarified in advance, the scope should be divided, and the qualification requirements of the subcontractor should be reviewed in advance during the qualification review. 如资审时没有确定是否分包而工程施工确需分包时，编制的招标文件中就应写清楚。 If no subcontracting is determined during the capital assessment and the project construction does require subcontracting, the tender documents prepared shall be clearly written. 《标准文件》在投标人须知的总则中留出分包一条是很有必要的，而且明示分包的是非主体、非关键性工作，并交代好限制条件，这样就不容易疏漏了。 "Standard Documents" It is necessary to leave a subcontract in the general rules for bidders, and it is clear that subcontracting is non-subject, non-critical work, and explain the restrictions, so it is not easy to omit.
五、工程款支付和结算方式 V. Payment and Settlement of Engineering Funds
采用预支工程预付款的方式。 1. Adopt the advance payment method of advance project. 要明确预支金额，按比例逐次扣回的办法，按月进度形象计量支付。 It is necessary to clarify the amount of advances, the method of deducting them on a pro-rata basis, and measuring payments based on the monthly progress image.
不采用预付工程备料款的方式（不提倡），可按工程进度款按月计量支付，累进价款支付的结算。 2. Do not use the method of pre-payment of project materials (not recommended), and can be measured and paid monthly according to the progress of the project, and settlement of progressive payment.
即预支工程预付款，也按形象工程支付进度款。 3. That is, advance payment for advance project, and progress payment according to image project.
无论采用那种方法，都应保留一定工程款比例做为保修金（土建、安装 3-5% ；设备 5-10% ），并按国家规定保修年限扣回和支付，在合同专用条款中标明，额度不能过大。 No matter which method is adopted, a certain proportion of engineering funds should be retained as warranty money ( 3-5% for civil construction and installation ; 5-10% for equipment ), and the warranty period should be withdrawn and paid according to national regulations. It should be specified in the special contract terms The amount cannot be too large.
建设单位应支付工程预付款，并要求施工单位提交履约担保及预付款担保，《标准文件》中提供了履约担保的格式和预付款担保的格式，将过去一直习惯运用的由投标人在投标时就提供自己账户银行开具的保函方式，而改为投标时提供投标人签章的担保书方式，减轻了施工企业的投标负担。 The construction unit shall pay the advance payment of the project and require the construction unit to submit a performance guarantee and a prepayment guarantee. The Standard Document provides the format of the performance guarantee and the prepayment guarantee format. Provide the guarantee method issued by the bank of their own account, and change to the method of providing a letter of guarantee signed by the bidder when bidding, reducing the bidding burden of the construction enterprise.
六、工期 Six, construction period
施工工期的确定，应依据工期定额和竣工需要，来规定合理工期。 The determination of the construction period shall be based on the construction period quota and completion requirements to determine a reasonable construction period. 从实际出发考虑冬雨季、节假日，甚至要考虑麦收、秋收期间的工期措施。 Consider the winter rainy season, holidays, and even the duration of wheat and autumn harvests. 各单项工程之间互相作业时，有的工期紧急，有的工期比较宽裕，都需区别对待。 When the individual projects work with each other, some of them are urgent, and some of them are more lenient, so they need to be treated differently. 提前工期，应考虑赶工措施费，提前工期和延误工期的要有奖罚办法。 Advance schedule should consider the cost of rush work, and there should be rewards and penalties for early schedule and delayed schedule. 确定工期要与招标人协商，招标代理机构应把关。 Negotiate with the tenderer to determine the construction period, and the bidding agency should check.
七、建设工程施工合同条款 Terms of construction contract
合同专用条款是招标投标的重要内容。 Contract-specific clauses are an important part of bidding. 施工招标文件中载明的合同主要条件是双方签合同的依据，一般不允许更改。 The main conditions of the contract specified in the construction bidding documents are the basis on which the two parties sign the contract, and it is generally not allowed to change. 招标文件中的合同条款是招标人单方面订立的，强迫投标人同意了，才能参加投标，即由要约人（投标人或合同中的承包人）向受要约人（招标人或合同中的发包人）发出要约，而一旦选定中标人，招标文件里的合同条件就成为受要约人的 “ 承诺 ” ，具有了法律约束力。 The contract terms in the bidding documents were unilaterally made by the bidder, and the bidder was forced to agree before he could participate in the bidding, that is, the bidder (the bidder or the contractor in the contract) issued the contract to the offeree (the bidder or the contract Person) issued an offer, and once the successful bidder is selected, the contract conditions in the bidding documents become the " commitment " of the offeree , which is legally binding.
工程施工招标不像其他项目招标，它在招标文件中由招标人制定和载明的合同专用条件，常规上一般不允许偏差，如果投标人在投标时不同意合同条款，中标的可能性基本为零（中标后合同签订时的变更除外）。 Project bidding is not like other project bidding. It is the contract-specific conditions formulated and stated by the bidder in the bidding documents. Generally, deviations are generally not allowed. If the bidder does not agree to the terms of the contract when bidding, the possibility of winning the bid is basically Zero (except when the contract is signed after winning the bid).
合同条件中比较重要的内容有： The more important contents of the contract conditions are:
合同文件及解释顺序 1. Contract documents and interpretation order
编制招标文件合同部分时，一般都会比较注意通用条款、专用条款、协议书、保修书、安全承诺、履约保函等合同文件，而往往忽视了构成合同文件的其他内容，从而忽略了其合同文件的解释优先顺序，直至真的发生合同争议，才发现解释顺序太重要了。 When preparing the contract part of the bidding documents, general attention is generally paid to contract documents such as general terms, special terms, agreements, guarantees, security commitments, performance guarantees, etc., and often the other content constituting the contract documents is ignored, and the contract documents are ignored. Priority of interpretation was not found to be too important until a contract dispute really occurred. 《标准文件》在通用合同总则中将优先顺序载明了，也是不能更改的。 The Standard Document sets out the order of priority in the general contract rules and cannot be changed.
发包人和承包人的义务 2. Obligations of the Employer and the Contractor
发包人和承包人还应在专用合同条件中详细规定双方义务。 The Employer and the Contractor shall also specify the obligations of both parties in the special contract conditions. 例如：施工前的现场条件中应由发包人承担的部分：水、电接口；道路开通时间；地下管线资料；水准点与座标控制点交验等。 For example: the part of the site conditions that should be undertaken by the contractor before construction: water and electrical interfaces; road opening time; information on underground pipelines; inspection of level points and coordinate control points. 承包人承担的部分：钻空和勘探性开挖；邻近建筑物、构筑物、文物安全保护；交通、环卫、噪音的管理；转包和分包的情况；材料的保管使用；完工清理等。 Part undertaken by the contractor: gouging and exploration excavation; safety protection of neighboring buildings, structures, cultural relics; management of traffic, environmental sanitation, noise; subcontracting and subcontracting; storage and use of materials; completion of cleanup, etc. 还有双方共同承担的内容：双方风险损失；保险；专利；临时设施等。 There are also the contents shared by both parties: risk losses of both parties; insurance; patents; temporary facilities. 应按照国家相关要求和建筑行业的行规认真编制。 It should be carefully prepared in accordance with relevant national requirements and the regulations of the construction industry.
工期延误 3. Delay in construction period
应分清发包人原因的延误及责任，还是承包人的原因及责任。 It should be distinguished whether the delays and responsibilities of the contractor are due, or the reasons and responsibilities of the contractor. 通用条款对工期延误条件已经在《标准文件》合同中规定，专用条款中还需载明发包方原因造成的工期后的，承包人有权要求延长工期天数，和 / 或增加的费用，并由发包人应支付的合理利润；承包方原因造成的工期延误，逾期竣工的违约金计算方法。 The general terms and conditions for the delay of the construction period have been stipulated in the "Standard Documents" contract. If the special terms also need to specify the post-construction period caused by the contractor, the contractor has the right to request the extension of the number of days and / or the additional costs. Reasonable profit to be paid by the contractor; the contractor's delay in the construction period caused by the contractor's reasons, and the calculation method of liquidated damages for overdue completion. 通用条款中注明支付违约金也不能免除承包人完成工程及修补缺陷的义务。 It is stated in the general terms that payment of liquidated damages does not relieve the contractor of the obligation to complete the project and repair defects.
验收方法和标准 4. Acceptance methods and standards
验收执行国家标准和 / 或各行业部颁标准，应载明验收时段和方法。 The inspection shall be carried out in accordance with national standards and / or standards issued by various industry departments, and shall specify the inspection period and method.
质量、安全、环保、节能 5. Quality, safety, environmental protection and energy saving
这是国家大环境的要求，应在合同中单独签订，或要求投标人在投标文件中递交书面承诺。 This is a requirement of the national environment and should be signed separately in the contract, or bidders are required to submit a written commitment in the bidding documents.
计量与支付 6. Measurement and payment
计量与支付是招标投标各方比较注意的内容，与招标文件中载明的报价方式密切相关，对投标人的报价有着极其重要的影响，而且在专用条件中需提前约定的内容比较多。 Measurement and payment are the contents that the parties to the bidding process pay more attention to. They are closely related to the quotation methods specified in the bidding documents. They have a very important impact on bidders' quotations, and there are a lot of things that must be agreed in advance in special conditions. 其中需注意： Note that:
①价款是否调整？ ① Is the price adjusted? 如何调整？ How to adjust? 应在合同中说明； Should be stated in the contract;
②工程预付款的支付方式、数额（一般按工程合同总价款的比例）、抵扣方式； ② The method and amount of advance payment of the project (generally based on the proportion of the total contract price) and the method of deduction;
③按进度支付时的工程量确认； ③Confirmation of the amount of the project at the time of payment;
④支付进度款的时间和所占比例； ④ Time and percentage of progress payment;
⑤保修金的比例和支付时间、方式； ⑤ Proportion of guarantee money, time and method of payment;
⑥其他应在专用合同条件中确定的条件。 ⑥ Other conditions that should be determined in the special contract conditions.
竣工结算、最终结清除专用合同条款约定期限外，其他按照通用条款执行。 Except for the time limit agreed upon in the special contract clauses for completion settlement and final settlement, other terms shall be implemented in accordance with the general terms.
投标人购买招标文件时一般都会问：工程款如何支付？ When bidders purchase bidding documents, they usually ask: How is the project payment paid? 从而了解工程建设资金情况，所以合同的这一部分一定要写清楚。 In order to understand the funding situation of the project, this part of the contract must be clearly written.
材料、设备的供应 7. Supply of materials and equipment
房企负责供应的材料、工程设备应在专用合同条款中写明名称、规格、数量、单价和总价以及材料差价、供货时间、供货方式、送达地点等，并约定运输费用、保管费用和验收，分清责任。 The materials and engineering equipment supplied by the housing enterprise shall specify the name, specifications, quantity, unit price and total price, as well as the material price difference, delivery time, delivery method, delivery location, etc. in the special contract terms, and agree on transportation costs and storage. Expenses and acceptance, distinguishing responsibilities.
其中，甲方供料、供材、供设备应做表格附在合同专用条款后面，表述清楚。 Among them, Party A's supply, materials, and equipment should be attached to the contract special clauses in a form, which is clearly stated. 如设备由甲方提供，其安装工作责任就要明确，安装工作由谁来做，总包服务费如何计入等。 If the equipment is provided by Party A, its installation work responsibilities must be clear, who will perform the installation work, and how the total contract service fee is included.
． 8 . 违约索赔 Claim for breach of contract
违约索赔应包括：各种原因造成的工期延误；使用不合格材料、设备造成工程拆除；缺陷修复；发包人工程款的延误支付；双方原因造成的违约终止或而后复工造成的费用等。 The claim for breach of contract shall include: delays in the construction period caused by various reasons; dismantling of the project caused by the use of unqualified materials and equipment; repair of defects; delay in payment of the contractor's project funds; costs caused by the termination of the contract by the two parties or subsequent resumption of work. 违约索赔应分清发包人、承包人双方责任，不能只规定承包人而免去发包人的责任。 The claim for breach of contract shall clearly distinguish the responsibilities of the contractor and the contractor, and the contractor shall not be required to waive the contractor's responsibility. 赔付条款应在专用条款中写明具体额度、扣除方式和顺延工期天数等内容。 The terms of compensation shall specify the specific amount, deduction method and days of postponed construction period in the special terms.
其他 9. Other
合同专用条款还有设计变更的特殊约定、保函的提交时间和额度、保险、争议解决方式、验收和结算、安全施工、质量保证、环保节能、施工组织设计、图纸等等。 The special clauses of the contract also include special agreements for design changes, submission time and amount of guarantees, insurance, dispute resolution methods, acceptance and settlement, safe construction, quality assurance, environmental protection and energy saving, construction organization design, drawings, and so on.
八、工程量清单 Eight, bill of quantities
工程量清单一般由设计单位提供。 The bill of quantities is generally provided by the design unit. 房企要对照施工图纸认真核对，投标人要依据图纸认真复核工程量，如发现有错误，应在法定的时间内通知所有合格潜在投标人。 The real estate enterprise shall carefully check the construction drawings, and the bidders shall carefully review the construction quantities according to the drawings. If any errors are found, all qualified potential bidders shall be notified within the legal time. 招标文件中的工程量清单报价说明应写详细，并表述完整、清楚，如暂估金额、暂估价、计日工等，还应考虑规范中不含的特殊项目、招标人的特殊要求以及计价方法等。 The quotation description of the bill of quantities in the bidding documents shall be written in detail and expressed in a complete and clear manner, such as the temporary assessment amount, temporary assessment, daily labor, etc., and shall consider the special items not included in the specification, the special requirements of the bidder and the valuation. Method, etc.
一般招标工程实物量和单价，在合同中有以下两种处理办法： There are two ways to deal with the physical quantity and unit price of general bidding projects in the contract:
实量实算。 1. Actual calculation. 允许在施工后进行调整，按实际完成工程量计算，但单价不调整。 Adjustments are allowed after construction and are calculated based on the actual amount of work completed, but unit prices are not adjusted. 即习惯上所说：调量不调价。 It is customary to say: volume is not adjusted.
一次包死。 2. Once packaged. 实物量和单价都不调整。 Neither physical quantity nor unit price is adjusted. 除设计变更原因外，一律不调。 Except for the reason of design change, it will not be adjusted.
九、报价 Nine, quote
报价是招标人和投标人双方最敏感的部分，也是招标投标活动的 “ 核心 ” 部分。 Quotation is the most sensitive part of both bidders and bidders, and it is also the " core " part of bidding and bidding activities .
工程施工图已发全，提供工程量清单，在工程量清单中说明计算规则、采用计量单位、暂列金额、暂估价的子目和数量。 The project construction drawings have been issued, and a bill of quantities is provided. In the bill of quantities, the calculation rules, the unit of measurement, the temporary amount, and the sub-item and quantity of the temporary valuation are explained. 一般也有二种报价方式： There are generally two ways to quote:
①投标报价采用固定价。 ① The bid price is fixed. 中标价是固定的，不因市场价格、政策性调整引起的变化而变动，如需变动在合同主要条款内写明。 The winning bid price is fixed and does not change due to changes in market prices and policy adjustments. If there is a need to change, it is stated in the main terms of the contract. 适用于简单房屋建筑，写清结算。 Applicable to simple house construction, clear settlement.
②投标报价采用可调价。 ② The bidding price is adjustable. 中标价仅为计划价，可因市场价格、政策性调整引起的变化而变动。 The winning bid price is only the planned price, which can change due to changes in market prices and policy adjustments.
以上①、②两种方法工程招标时经常采用。 The above two methods ① and ② are often used when bidding for projects. 目前国内招标多采用工程量清单计价，报价为固定单价方式，其单价又分为 “ 工料单价 ” 和 “ 综合单价 ” 。 At present, most domestic biddings use the bill of quantities for pricing, and the quotation is a fixed unit price. The unit price is divided into " unit price " and " comprehensive unit price " . 一般应在招标文件中规定工程量计算规则和参考相关定额计价。 Generally, the rules for calculating the quantity of the project shall be specified in the bidding documents and the price shall be referenced to the relevant quota.
采用 “ 工料单价 ” 报价的，依据相应的工程量计算规则和定额等计价依据计算报价，投标人在报价中所报的单价和合价，以及投标报价汇总表中的价格均包括完成该工程项目的成本、利润、税金、管理费、技术措施费、大型机械进出场费、风险费、政策性文件规定费用等所有费用。 Where the " unit price " is used, the quotation is calculated based on the corresponding engineering quantity calculation rules and quotas, and the unit price and total price reported by the bidder in the quotation and the price in the bid quotation summary table include the completion of the project. All costs including costs, profits, taxes, management fees, technical measures, entrance and exit costs of large machinery, risk fees, and fees prescribed by policy documents.
采用 “ 综合单价 ” 报价应按招标人提供的工程量清单中列出的工程项目和工程量填报单价和合价。 The " combined unit price " quotation shall be used to fill in the unit price and combined price according to the engineering projects and engineering quantities listed in the engineering quantity list provided by the tenderer. 每一项目只允许有一个报价。 Only one quote is allowed per item. 投标人未填单价或合价的工程项目，则将视为该项费用已包括在其他有价款的单价或合价内。 If the bidder does not fill in the unit price or the unit price, the project will be deemed to have been included in the unit price or the unit price. 投标人在报价中具有标价的工程量清单中所报的单价和合价，以及投标报价汇总表中的价格均包括完成该工程项目的成本、利润、税金、管理费、技术措施费、大型机械进出场费、风险费、政策性文件规定费用等所有费用。 The unit price and total price reported by the bidder in the list of quantities with the quoted price, as well as the prices in the summary table of bid quotes, include the cost of completing the project, profits, taxes, management fees, technical measures, and large machinery imports All costs including appearance fees, risk fees, and fees stipulated in policy documents.
以上①、②两种报价方式，在工程结算方式中应列出结算公式。 The above ①, ② two quotation methods, the settlement formula should be listed in the project settlement method.
还有一种为 “ 成本加酬金 ” 方式，《标准文件》中没有规定可以使用。 There is also a " cost plus remuneration " method, which is not stipulated in the Standard Document. 即以工程实际发生的成本即直接工程费，再加上双方商定的措施费、间接费、利润、税金向承包人支付工程款的一种合同方式。 That is to say, the actual cost of the project is the direct engineering cost, plus the measure costs, indirect costs, profits, and taxes agreed by the parties to pay the contractor a contract method.
这种计价方式主要适用于开工前对工程内容尚不十分清楚的情况，例如边设计边施工的紧急工程，或遭受地震、战火等灾害破坏后需修复的工程。 This pricing method is mainly applicable to situations where the content of the project is not very clear before the start of the project, such as emergency engineering while designing or construction that needs to be repaired after being damaged by earthquakes, wars, and other disasters. 采用 “ 成本加酬金 ” 方式需由监督机构的批复，不在本次试行范围内。 The use of the " cost plus remuneration " method requires the approval of the supervisory authority and is not within the scope of this trial.
十、评标办法 X. Bid Evaluation Method
评标办法是招标活动过程中的 “ 关键一环 ” 。 The bid evaluation method is a " key link " in the bidding process . 评标办法质量高低直接影响本次招标活动能否评选出理想中标人即招标结果。 The quality of the bid evaluation method directly affects whether this bidding activity can select the ideal bidder, that is, the bidding result. 其评标方法在国家七部委 12 号令中第二十九条中规定 “ 评标办法包括经评审的最低投标价法、综合评估法或者法律、法规允许的其他评标方法 ” 。 The bid evaluation method is stipulated in Article 29 of Order No. 12 of the Seven Ministries and Commissions of the People's Republic of China. " Bid evaluation methods include the evaluated minimum bid price method, comprehensive evaluation method, or other evaluation methods permitted by laws and regulations . " 《标准文件》中规定了两种评标办法：经评审的最低投标价法和综合评估法。 The Standard Document provides for two methods of bid evaluation: the evaluated minimum bid method and the comprehensive evaluation method. 其实有这两个方法已经足够，其他方法也只是这两个方法在程序上的演变，大同小异。 In fact, these two methods are enough, and the other methods are just the evolution of these two methods. They are similar.
评审的因素和标准在《标准文件》中已经载明，而量化标准和评分标准还需根据施工工程的情况进行协商和编制，填写在评标办法 “ 前附表 ” 里。 The evaluation factors and standards have been specified in the "Standard Documents", and the quantification standards and scoring standards need to be negotiated and prepared according to the construction project conditions, and filled in the " pre-attachment table " of the evaluation method .
十一、参考资料 Eleven, reference materials
编制施工招标文件时，还应编制一套详细的参考资料与招标文件和图纸同时发售，对其所施工工程的项目状况和现场条件做出详细说明。 When preparing the construction bidding documents, a set of detailed reference materials should also be prepared and sold together with the bidding documents and drawings, and the project status and site conditions of the construction projects should be explained in detail.
在工程建设中，现场条件指工程建设在施工现场进行施工前所具备的条件，这些条件对施工组织设计和具体施工有直接影响，也直接影响到工程报价和工程造价。 In project construction, on-site conditions refer to the conditions that the project has before construction begins on the construction site. These conditions have a direct impact on the construction organization design and specific construction, and also directly affect the project quotation and project cost.
参考资料中的现场条件含自然条件、水文地质勘察及经济条件等，文件中应做详细介绍，使投标人熟悉其工程施工环境，合理考虑风险，在编制施工组织设计时得以考虑周全，并合理报价。 The site conditions in the reference materials include natural conditions, hydrogeological surveys, and economic conditions. The documents should be introduced in detail to familiarize bidders with their engineering construction environment and reasonably consider risks. They can be considered in a comprehensive and reasonable way when preparing the construction organization design. Quote. 一般讲，现场条件中包括自然条件、经济条件、环境条件、生活福利条件等其他招标人认为需提供的资料。 Generally speaking, on-site conditions include natural, economic, environmental, and living welfare conditions, and other materials that the bidder considers necessary to provide.
投标单位在购买招标文件后应进行现场踏勘，详细了解和调查参考资料中所提供的这些条件，作为编制施工组织设计和报价时的依据。 After purchasing the bidding documents, the bidding unit shall conduct on-site surveys to understand and investigate these conditions provided in the reference materials in detail, as the basis for compiling the construction organization design and quotation.
大型特殊工程招标时，项目状况如在工程概况中已经标明，再在参考资料中详细说明一下即可。 When bidding for large-scale special projects, if the project status is indicated in the project overview, then it can be explained in detail in the reference materials.
工程施工招标时招标人还应在参考资料中提供详勘资料，没有详勘时起码也应提供初勘资料。 The tenderer shall also provide detailed survey information in the reference materials when bidding for the construction of the project, and at least preliminary survey data shall also be provided when there is no detailed survey.
编制 “ 参考资料 ” ，在评标时和签订合同时，其效果就明显的表露出来，省却了更多的麻烦，得以快速、顺利的进入工程施工程序。 The compilation of " reference materials " clearly shows the effect during the bid evaluation and the signing of the contract, saving more trouble and being able to enter the project construction process quickly and smoothly.
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