I. Items that must be tendered
1 、项目范围 1. Project scope
根据《招标投标法》第 3 条规定，在中华人民共和国境内进行下列工程建设项目包括项目的勘察、设计、施工、监理以及与工程建设有关的重要设备、材料等的采购，必须进行招标： According to Article 3 of the Tendering and Bidding Law , bidding must be conducted in the People's Republic of China for the following engineering construction projects, including project survey, design, construction, supervision, and procurement of important equipment and materials related to engineering construction:
（一）大型基础设施、公用事业等关系社会公共利益、公众安全的项目 ; (1) Large-scale infrastructure, public utilities and other projects that have a bearing on social public interests and public safety ;
（二）全部或者部分使用国有资金投资或者国家融资的项目 ; (2) Projects wholly or partly invested with state funds or financed by the state ;
（三）使用国际组织或者外国政府贷款、援助资金的项目。 (3) Projects using loans or aid funds from international organizations or foreign governments.
〖 〖 解 solution 析 Analyze 〗 〖
1 ）必须招标的项目范围应当准确掌握，同时要注意招标的内容为勘察、设计、施工、监理还有重要设备、材料的采购 (“ 重要 ” 二字不要忘了 ) 。 1 ) The scope of projects that must be invited for bidding should be accurately grasped. At the same time, the content of bidding should be survey, design, construction, supervision, and procurement of important equipment and materials ( don't forget the word " important " ) .
2 ）私人投资项目如果符合 (1) 中情形， 2 ) If the private investment project meets the situation in (1) , 同样必须招标。 It must also be tendered. 如私人投资的商品住宅项目。 Such as private investment in commercial housing projects.
2 、工程规模 2. Project scale
《工程建设项目招标范围和规模标准规定》规定的上述各类工程建设项目，包括项目的勘察、设计、监理、施工以及与工程建设有关的重要设备、材料等的采购，达到下列标准之一的，必须进行招标： The above-mentioned various types of engineering construction projects stipulated in the "Provisions on the Scope and Scale of Tendering for Engineering Construction Projects", including the project survey, design, supervision, construction and procurement of important equipment and materials related to engineering construction, meet one of the following standards Must be tendered:
（一）施工单项合同估算价在 200 万元人民币以上的 ; (1) The estimated value of a single construction contract is more than 2 million yuan ;
（二）重要设备、材料等货物的采购，单项合同估算价在 l00 万元人民币以上的 ; (2) For the procurement of important equipment, materials and other goods, the estimated value of a single contract is more than 10 million yuan ;
（三）勘察、设计、监理等服务的采购，单项合同估算价在 50 万元人民币以上的 ; (3) for the procurement of survey, design, supervision and other services, the estimated value of a single contract is more than 500,000 yuan ;
（四）单项合同估算价低于第 1 、 2 、 3 项规定的标准。 (4) The estimated price of a single contract is lower than the standards specified in items 1 , 2 , and 3 . 但项目总投资额在 3000 万元人民币以上的。 However, the total investment of the project is more than 30 million yuan.
〖 〖 解 solution 析 Analyze 〗 〖
1 ）上文中的这些数额规定一定要准确掌握，特别是要注意项目总投资额在 3000 万人民币以上情况。 1 ) The above amount requirements must be accurately grasped, especially when the total investment of the project is more than 30 million yuan.
2 ）一个项目是必须招标的项目，该项目必须要符合两个条件：既要落在招标范围内，也要达到相应的标准，缺一不可。 2 ) A project is a project that must be tendered. The project must meet two conditions: it must fall within the scope of the tender and meet the corresponding standards. 但是，没有同时满足上面两个条件的项目，尽管不是必须招标的项目，也可以招标。 However, projects that do not meet the above two conditions at the same time can be tendered, although they are not mandatory.
二、可以不招标的项目 2. Projects that can be bid-free
如果建设项目不属于必须招标的项目，则可以招标也可以不招标。 If the construction project does not belong to a project that must be tendered, it may or may not be tendered. 同时也存在符合必须招标项目的条件，但是属于某些特殊情形的，也是可以不招标的。 At the same time, there are conditions that meet the requirements for bidding, but in some special cases, it is not necessary to bid.
1 、可以不招标 1. No need to bid
《工程建设项目施工招标投标办法》第十二条 Article 12 of the Measures for Tendering and Bidding of Engineering Construction Projects 规定：依法必须进行施工招标的工程建设项目有下列情形之一的，可以不进行施工招标： Provisions: Construction bidding projects that are required to perform construction bidding in accordance with the law may not be subject to construction bidding in any of the following circumstances:
（一）涉及国家安全、国家秘密、抢险救灾或者属于利用扶贫资金实行以工代赈需要使用农民工等特殊情况，不适宜进行招标； (1) Bidding is not suitable for special situations involving national security, state secrets, emergency rescue and disaster relief, or the use of poverty relief funds to implement work-for-work and the need to use migrant workers;
（二）施工主要技术采用不可替代的专利或者专有技术； (2) The main construction technology adopts irreplaceable patents or proprietary technologies;
（三）已通过招标方式选定的特许经营项目投资人依法能够自行建设； (3) The investor of the franchise project that has been selected by means of tendering can build it by himself;
（四）采购人依法能够自行建设； (4) The purchaser can build it by himself according to law;
（五）在建工程追加的附属小型工程或者主体加层工程，原中标人仍具备承包能力，并且其他人承担将影响施工或者功能配套要求； (5) For the attached minor projects or the main additional layer projects of the construction in progress, the original bidder still has the contracting ability, and other persons bear the requirements that will affect the construction or functional support;
（六）国家规定的其他情形。 (6) Other circumstances prescribed by the state.
2 、可以邀请招标 2.You can invite tenders
另外，第十一条规定：依法必须进行公开招标的项目，有下列情形之一的，可以邀请招标： In addition, Article 11 stipulates that projects that are required to undergo public bidding in accordance with the law may be invited to bid in any of the following circumstances:
（一）项目技术复杂或有特殊要求，或者受自然地域环境限制，只有少量潜在投标人可供选择； (1) The project is technically complex or has special requirements, or is restricted by the natural geographical environment, and there are only a few potential bidders to choose from;
（二）涉及国家安全、国家秘密或者抢险救灾，适宜招标但不宜公开招标； (2) Involving national security, state secrets, or rescue and disaster relief, bid invitations are appropriate but not public bidding;
（三）采用公开招标方式的费用占项目合同金额的比例过大。 (3) The proportion of the cost of adopting public bidding to the project contract amount is too large.
三、中标无效的七种情况 Three situations in which the winning bid is invalid
根据《工程建设项目施工招标投标办法》的规定，以下 7 类情况属于 “ 中标无效 ” 。 According to the "Procedures for Bidding and Tendering for the Construction of Projects", the following 7 types of situations are " invalid for bid winning " .
1 、依法必须招标未招标 1. Bidding is required according to law
依法必须进行施工招标的项目违反法律规定，未进行招标的，中标无效。 Projects that are required to bid for construction in accordance with the law violate the laws and regulations, and those who do not bid for bids will be invalid.
2 、招标泄露标的 2.The subject matter of the tender leakage
招标人向他人透露已获取招标文件的潜在投标人的名称、数量或者可能影响公平竞争的有关招标投标的其他情况，或者泄露标底影响中标结果的，中标无效。 If the tenderer discloses to others the name and number of potential bidders who have obtained the bidding documents, or other circumstances related to bidding that may affect fair competition, or the disclosure of the bottom of the bid and the results of the bidding, the winning bid is invalid.
3 、围标、串标 3 , beacon, string
投标人相互串通投标或者与招标人串通投标的，投标人以向招标人或者评标委员会成员行贿的手段谋取中标的，中标无效。 If the bidders collude with each other or co-bid with the bidder, the bidder will try to win the bid by bribing the bidder or a member of the bid evaluation committee, and the bid is invalid.
4 、借用他人名义投标 4.Bid in the name of someone else
投标人以他人名义投标或者以其他方式弄虚作假，骗取中标的，中标无效。 If a bidder bids in the name of another person or otherwise falsifies and wins the bid, the bid is invalid.
5 、招标代理机构泄露招标资料 5.Tendering agency leaked tendering information
招标代理机构泄露应当保密的与招标投标活动有关的情况和资料，或者与招标人、投标人串通损害国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益，影响中标结果，并且中标人为受益人的，中标无效。 Tendering agencies shall disclose the information and information related to bidding and bidding activities that shall be kept confidential or collude with the bidder or bidder to damage national interests, social public interests, or the legitimate rights and interests of others, affecting the bidding result, and the winning bidder shall be invalidated .
6 、招标、投标方私下接触 6.Tenders and bidders contact privately
招标人违法与投标人就投标价格、投标方案等实质性内容进行谈判，影响中标结果的，中标无效。 If the bid inviting party negotiates with the bidder on the substantive content such as the bid price and bid plan, which affects the result of the bid, the bid is invalid.
7 、违法确定或更换评标专家 7.Illegal determination or replacement of bid evaluation experts
招标人违法确定或者更换评标委员会成员，其作出的评审决定无效。 The bid inviting party illegally determines or replaces the members of the bid evaluation committee, and the evaluation decision made by the bid inviting party is invalid.
“中标无效”，那么中标通知书和所签订的工程施工合同也是无效的，没有法律约束力。 "The bid is invalid", then the bid notification and the construction contract signed are also invalid and have no legal binding force. 施工企业应当获取的工程款将不能得到法律保障。 The construction funds that construction enterprises should obtain will not be guaranteed by law.
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