China's public resource platform construction proposes a public resource platform consisting of a public service platform, a trading platform, and a monitoring platform. The three networks are separated from each other. It is formulated from the level of national strategy to create public resources horizontally, laterally, and vertically by the end of 2017. Strategic goals of trading electronic public service platforms. 《电子招标投标办法》 中关于电子招投标系统功能分类的进一步深化。 This top-level design that complements, restricts, and supports each other is a further deepening of the functional classification of the electronic bidding system in the Electronic Tendering and Bidding Measures . The marketization of the trading platform is the core mechanism for the reform and design of the bidding system and the entire public resource trading platform system. The introduction of third-party trading platforms promotes the stripping of the trading functions of the public resource platform, and finally realizes the marketization reform of the trading platform. This shows that third-party trading platforms have become the key to the development of public resource trading platforms.
I. Status and main problems
At this stage, trading platforms fall into three categories. The first type is the trading platform to which a central enterprise belongs. It is established based on the company's own needs, and is usually limited to specific industries and professional fields. It is essentially an integrated model of transaction services and internal management. For example, the State Grid Corporation's e-commerce platform, Guodian Group's electronic bidding platform, etc .; the second type is the trading platform owned by the trading center (including the construction engineering trading center and the public resource trading center). Most of them are constructed by various government departments. The three-in-one model of information service, supervision and transaction does not meet the requirements for separation of the three platforms in the "Electronic Tendering and Bidding Measures", but such platforms occupy a large market share. According to statistics, there are more than 1,200 trading platforms for various public resources throughout the country. For example, Jingjian E (Beijing Construction Engineering Contracting and Trading Center) and Xiamen Construction Engineering Electronic Bidding and Trading Platform (Xiamen Construction Engineering Trading Center), etc .; the third type is called a third-party trading platform. The national stock of such platforms is very small. It is a platform built by market entities (including joint bidding agencies) in addition to the bidder and government departments. It is an independent institution other than the parties to the transaction and has an irreplaceable legal status. Its biggest advantage is that it can provide services to parties to public resource transactions at any time, anywhere, across industries and regions. For example, Guoxin Sunshine Electronic Bidding Platform.
The promulgation of the Work Plan for the Integration and Establishment of a Unified Public Resource Trading Platform makes the public resource trading platform unable to maintain the status quo, there is no retreat, it must be changed, and it must be transformed and repositioned. The transformation principle is to divest its trading function, and the essence is the adjustment of interest structure. In this process, adjustments and rearrangements of resources and management systems are involved. What direction and how to turn will become a fundamental breakthrough in the reform of the public resource trading platform. As a third-party trading platform with less market share in the public resource trading market, it is facing unprecedented new situations and new problems.
First, the fairness of third-party trading platforms has been questioned. In the investigation, some places questioned the fairness of the third-party trading platform , believing that the platform built by the government can better protect the interests of the country and ensure the fairness of the transaction. There is a clear interest relationship between the third-party trading platform and the parties to the transaction, and it is difficult to guarantee fairness in public resource transactions. Therefore, the docking with third-party trading platforms is ideologically excluded. This view will lead to insufficient awareness of the subject of existing public resource trading platforms, which is not conducive to the docking of open standards with third-party trading platforms, thereby laying an invisible obstacle to the docking.
The second is insufficient policy support and monopoly in public resource transactions. In accordance with the spirit of the "Notice on the Solid Implementation of the National Electronic Tendering and Bidding Pilot Work" (Fakai Regulation  No. 1544), the public resource platform and the trading platform open data interfaces. At the current stage, although the requirements for docking between third-party trading platforms and local platforms at all levels have been clarified from a policy and technical perspective, relevant supporting implementation rules and specific guidelines have not yet been issued. The characteristics of industries and regions in public resource transactions are still very obvious. The existence of administrative monopoly in public resource transactions has led to the emergence of third-party transaction platforms that have little ability to compete with transaction platforms established by relevant government departments.
The third is that development belongs to the initial stage and its functions are restricted. At present, the number of third-party trading platforms in the country is very small, and it is still in its infancy. It is difficult to give full play to its functions. First, there is no mature profit model. Most of the profits are derived from the platform use service fee and transaction subject CA lock use fee. Second, most platform companies are still operating at a loss. In order to be able to contract for business, some platform companies build free platforms such as agency companies and engineering trading centers. Almost all the systems are charged by the platform construction to the platform users after the system is completed. It was even divided into trading centers, which brought a crisis to regulate the market. Third, the business volume of the third-party trading platform mainly depends on the bidding agency, but subject to local policies, the amount of public resources that the bidding agency itself can get on the third-party platform for transactions is very small. Taking Ruihe Anhui Project Management Group Co., Ltd. (Hebei Province) as an example, the average annual number of projects is about 3000, which is actually limited by the local market trading system. Only 30 projects can be traded on third-party platforms. %about. Bao Lizhen, vice president of technology of Guoxin Sunshine Electronic Bidding Platform, believes that the development of the electronic bidding system must be supported by sufficient business volume, otherwise the third-party trading platform will not have meaning.
Fourth, technology development is the leading factor, and operational services cannot keep up. At present, the vast majority of platform builders have penetrated into the strange circle relying on platform construction and supplemented by operations. The electronic bidding system provides intangible products and has obvious personal characteristics under the conditions of meeting the requirements. The quality of the transaction results depends on the transaction plan and the long-term accumulated project performance and experience of the operation team. Technical leadership does not mean success. Operating platform. Effective operation can reflect the business needs of the transaction subject with the best solution in the transaction result, and can provide the maximum service value for public resource transactions.
Fifth, the government's response is insufficient, and supervision is lagging behind. Under the traditional supervision mode, various departments are accustomed to the work mode of on-site supervision. Electronic bidding has realized the innovation of supervision methods. Government supervision has been transferred from the site to the Internet. The adjustment and supervision mode must be adapted to the electronic bidding and tendering, and the management concepts and rules under the traditional mode cannot be simply moved online. In this case, who will "control" the legality of the behavior of the third-party trading platform? As a third-party trading platform, how can you "see" the transaction behavior and transaction results are legal? These are all issues that require in-depth thinking and urgent solutions.
The necessity and advantages of third-party trading platforms
At present, the biggest problem in public resource transactions is the closed operation of power, and the lack of an open and transparent competition mechanism in the transaction link. Achieving a shift in the allocation of public resources from administrative allocation to market allocation can make market transaction information more open and transparent, and market order more standardized and orderly. Shenzhen is the first electronic bidding innovation pilot city determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. After the introduction of a third-party trading platform, it took only one year from July 2014 to July 2015 to achieve 100% electronic transaction coverage. The amount of 76.11717 billion yuan, handled more than 100 complaints, and handled the pilot results of more than 20 experts in violation of regulations, achieving the goal of reducing the bid price and reducing the number of complaints. Shenzhen's first-in-first-out trial takes advantage of the significant advantages of third-party trading platforms.
In fact, the existing public resource trading platform has been affiliated with the administrative department since its establishment and lacks independence and autonomy. When this type of platform trades on public resources and markets, its trading object is the main body of marketization. If its own trading organization is also affiliated with a government department, it is difficult to ensure that it is independent of market-based public services. There is no justice. Wu Yaping, Investment Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, believes that it is precisely the third-party trading platform that is an independent institution other than the parties to the transaction. It has no interest in the transaction process. Its own independence guarantees the fairness of its services.
3. Suggestions for Successful Development of Public Resource Trading Platforms
1. Open standards and actively embrace third-party trading platforms. The government must open standards and promote and implement the docking of third-party trading platforms and public resource platforms. In the policy environment, it is not only “encouraged”, but not “restricted” and “excluded”. It should also emphasize the public resource transactions established by various departments. The platform develops in concert with third-party trading platforms. Hu Zhigao, technical director of China Tendering Public Service Platform Co., Ltd. believes that in actual implementation, it is necessary to prevent the installation of invisible obstacles to third-party trading platforms by setting up technical barriers, and to transfer or restrict access to third-party platforms.
2. Simplify administration and delegate power to allow the market to test third-party trading platforms. The government should let go, break the monopoly, and rely on the market to test public resource transactions in order to maximize the value of public resources. Wu Yaping, Investment Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, believes that government departments cannot, on the one hand, talk about simplifying administration and decentralization, on the other hand, reach out for administrative intervention on third-party platforms, and formulate rules and regulations to limit the development of third-party trading platforms. Whether the third-party trading platform is doing well or not is left to the market for inspection. According to the statistics of the Fujian Provincial Development and Reform Commission, as of the end of 2014, Fujian Province's third-party transaction platforms had completed a total of 2307 bids, with a winning bid of 45.81 billion yuan, and achieved zero government input, and the bidding companies' bidding costs were reduced to the original 3% . The third-party platform for electronic bidding and tendering has grown rapidly in Fujian Province, has been tested and recognized by the market, and has a good relationship with the local government and third-party trading platform companies.
3. Defining behavior and clearly dividing responsibilities. The new features of the electronic bidding platform are also prone to new problems and new controversies. The treatment and responsibility in the face of these issues must be clearly defined, otherwise the development of third-party trading platforms will be restricted. Therefore, it is necessary to divide the behavioral boundaries between public resource platforms, third-party trading platforms, and transaction subjects. In the docking, the rights, obligations and responsibilities of all parties need to be clarified. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and improve the necessary legal and policy support and improve the protection system to ensure that the interests of all parties are not harmed. The third-party trading platform is an independent non-governmental service organization, which can more reasonably represent the interests of all aspects of the transaction. Therefore, the position of the referee of the third-party trading platform must be clarified.
4. Innovate supervision and restrict third-party trading platforms with diversified supervision methods. Li Xiaolin, executive deputy secretary-general of the China Tendering and Bidding Association, believes that the government should separate the multiple identities of decision-making, execution, management and supervision in the bidding and bidding transaction activities. He also believes that market supervision of bidding and tendering should be separated from industry management, and be carried out by integrated institutions in a centralized, independent, fair, transparent and lawful manner to perform supervisory responsibilities, implement in-process, post-event, and electronic supervision methods, and make their own administrative actions. Accept the diverse and open supervision of market entities and the public. To this end, the relevant public resource supervision departments must formulate corresponding supervision systems and procedures, set more scientific and reasonable regulatory rules to adapt to the electronic trading platform, and solve the existing problems in the supervision field. After the third-party trading platform is docked with the public service platform, it realizes the sharing of transaction information, accepts supervision, and provides a channel for supervision departments to implement supervision in accordance with the law. At the same time, the public service platform can feedback the results of supervision in real time to achieve the purpose of supervision.
On September 15, Lin Nianxiu, a member of the party group and deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, pointed out that "the pilot demonstration should be carried out quickly", and "the country should strive to provide the country with innovative models and practices that can be copied and learned from." We are confident that with the encouragement of national and local policies, we will give play to the successful demonstration role of the early pilot platform and actively guide third-party trading platforms to participate in public resource trading activities. To this end, on the one hand, the relevant departments should further formulate and implement a series of policies and measures to promote the development of third-party trading platforms; on the other hand, they should open standards, promote and implement the docking of third-party trading platforms and public resource platforms, and adopt them in a timely manner. Various channels announce the docking list and docking situation to the society. Make the best use, use, and use of the pilot demonstration effect, and transform the pilot demonstration results into the fundamental driving force for the success of public resource trading platforms.
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