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Must know! Laws and regulations related to e-bidding procurement

Published: 2016-12-02 11:22:48 Author: Stand edit Views: Times

《电子签名法》 Electronic Signature Act

电子招标采购签订的合同属于民事合同,为了保证电子合同的有效性, 2005 4 1 日,中国第一部信息化立法《中华人民共和国电子签名法》(以下简称《签名法》)正式颁布,给予了工程建设项目电子招投标活动法律保证。 The contract signed by electronic bidding and procurement is a civil contract. In order to ensure the validity of the electronic contract, on April 1 , 2005, China's first information legislation, the Electronic Signature Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Signature Law”) was officially promulgated. Provided legal guarantee for electronic bidding activities of construction projects. 其中,有 3 个涉及到电子签名的条款值得注意。 Among them, three provisions concerning electronic signatures are worth noting.

第三条 Article 3 当事人约定使用电子签名、数据电文的文书,不得仅因为其采用电子签名、数据电文的形式而否定其法律效力。 Documents in which the parties have agreed to use electronic signatures and data messages shall not deny their legal effect simply because they adopt electronic signatures or data messages.

第十四条 Article 14 可靠的电子签名与手写签名或者盖章具有同等的法律效力。 A reliable electronic signature has the same legal effect as a handwritten signature or stamp.

第三十二条 Article 32 伪造、冒用、盗用他人的电子签名,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;给他人造成损失的,依法承担民事责任。 Whoever forges, impersonates, or misappropriates the electronic signature of another person constitutes a crime, and shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with law; if it causes damage to another person, it shall bear civil liability in accordance with law.

《签名法》确立了电子签名的法律效力,明确了电子签名的规则,消除了电子商务发展的法律障碍,维护了电子交易各方的合法权益,保障了电子交易安全,创造了良好的电子商务法律环境。 The "Signature Law" establishes the legal effect of electronic signatures, clarifies the rules of electronic signatures, removes legal obstacles to the development of electronic commerce, safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of all parties to electronic transactions, guarantees the security of electronic transactions, and creates good electronic commerce. Legal environment.

《电子招标投标办法》 "E-bidding Measures"

随着电子招标投标市场的发展,相关问题也渐渐暴露出来。 With the development of the electronic bidding market, related problems are gradually exposed.

第一,由于缺乏制度和规范,电子交易平台不能互联互通,一个地方一套软件。 First, due to the lack of systems and norms, electronic trading platforms cannot be interconnected. One place has a set of software. 这样就导致了投标人到某地投标需要先交会费加入当地协会成为会员,然后 优惠 购买电子投标合成软件,方可参与投标;而到了另一个地方,原来的系统均不通用,必须再加入此地的协会,再次购买软件方可投标。 This has caused bidders to pay a membership fee to join a local association to become a member, and then " discount " purchase electronic bid synthesis software before they can participate in bidding; in another place, the original system is not universal and must be Join the association here and buy software again before bidding. 另外,由于各级政府网站和相关服务平台、交易平台互不联通,不利于打破技术壁垒和行业界限,阻碍了信息在全国范围内的自由流动和全国统一大市场的形成。 In addition, the disconnection of government websites, related service platforms, and trading platforms at all levels is not conducive to breaking technical barriers and industry boundaries, hindering the free flow of information across the country and the formation of a unified national market.

第二,对于电子招标活动中特有的专业程序和安全问题,如投标文件传输失败的救济和法律责任,泄密的责任追究等,由于缺乏法律支撑,亟需解决。 Secondly, due to the lack of legal support, professional procedures and security issues unique to electronic bidding activities, such as the relief of failed bidding document transmission and legal liability, and accountability for leaks, need to be resolved urgently.

第三,各地交易中心的建立和运行标准良莠不齐、缺乏统一管理,长此以往将阻碍电子招标的发展。 Third, the establishment and operation standards of local trading centers are uneven, and lack of unified management, which will hinder the development of electronic bidding in the long run.

第四,电子招标的监管体制不健全,有形市场内的监督局限于开标旁站;交易市场外的项目缺乏手段、疏于管理。 Fourth, the supervision system for electronic bidding is not complete, and supervision in the tangible market is limited to stations that open bids; projects outside the trading market lack means and neglect management.

基于此, 2013 2 4 日国家发改委等部门起草颁布了《电子招标投标办法》(以下简称《办法》)及其技术规范( 8 部委 20 号令)。 Based on this, on February 4 , 2013 , the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments drafted and promulgated the "E-tendering and Bidding Measures" (hereinafter referred to as the "Measures") and their technical specifications ( Order No. 20 of 8 Ministries and Commissions ). 该办法于 2013 5 1 日正式实施,该法的实施为建立公平公正的电子招标投标活动的市场秩序提供了法律和技术保障,是招标投标行业可持续发展的技术里程碑。 This measure was formally implemented on May 1 , 2013. The implementation of the law provided legal and technical guarantees for establishing a fair and fair market order for electronic bidding and tendering activities, and is a technical milestone for the sustainable development of the bidding and bidding industry.

另外,如中国招标投标公共服务平台这样的电子招标投标国家级公共服务平台的成立也将促进资源整合和推动电子招投标的快速发展。 In addition, the establishment of national public service platforms for electronic bidding and tendering, such as the Chinese public bidding and tendering service platform, will also promote the integration of resources and the rapid development of electronic bidding.

数据电文的法律效力 Legal effect of data message

在实际操作中,并不是所有数据电文都具有法律效力。 In practice, not all data messages are legally valid. 如果要成为具有法律效力的数据电文,应该使该数据电文符合《签名法》中 数据电文原件形式的要求 ,因为只有数据电文原件形式才具有与纸质形式同等法律效力。 If it is to become a legally valid data message, the data message should comply with the “ Requirement of the Original Data Message Form ” in the “Signature Law , because only the original data message form has the same legal effect as the paper form.

《数据电文的形式》 "Form of Data Message"

《签名法》第二章指出,数据电文有两种形式,即书面形式和原件形式。 Chapter II of the "Signature Law" states that there are two forms of data messages, namely written and original forms.

1. 数据电文的书面形式 1. Written form of data message

《签名法》第四条指出: 能够有形地表现所载内容,并可以随时调取查用的数据电文,视为符合法律、法规要求的书面形式。 绝大部分数据电文都具有书面形式的属性,但是,由于数据电文具有可无痕篡改、伪造的特性,在电子招标投标系统中,只满足数据电文书面形式要求在很多场合是不够的,尤其是涉及责任认定和作为纠纷证据的部分一定不能是书面形式的数据电文,应当是原件形式。 Article 4 of the "Signature Law" states: " A data message that can be tangibly represented and can be retrieved at any time for investigation is deemed to be a written form that meets the requirements of laws and regulations. " The vast majority of data messages have a written form. However, due to the fact that the data message can be tamper-proof and falsified, in the electronic tendering and bidding system, it is not enough to meet the requirements of the written form of the data message in many cases, especially the part that involves the determination of liability and the evidence of disputes. The data message must not be in written form, it should be in the original form.

2. 数据电文的原件形式 2. The original form of the data message

《签名法》第五条中规定: 符合下列条件的数据电文,视为满足法律、法规规定的原件形式要求: Article 5 of the "Signature Law" states: " A data message that meets the following conditions shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the original form stipulated by laws and regulations:

(一)能够有效地表现所载内容并可供随时调取查用; (1) It can effectively represent the content contained and be available for retrieval at any time;

(二)能够可靠地保证自最终形成时起,内容保持完整、未被更改。 (2) It can reliably ensure that the content remains intact and unchanged since the final formation. 但是,在数据电文上增加背书以及数据交换、储存和显示过程中发生的形式变化不影响数据电文的完整性。 However, the endorsement of data messages and the changes in the form of data exchange, storage and display will not affect the integrity of the data message. "

在司法实践中,保障数据电文原件形式的方式有很多,只要满足上述条件的都可以称为原件。 In judicial practice, there are many ways to protect the original form of the data message. As long as the above conditions are met, they can be called the original. 这里关键是保障原件形式的方式和方法是否简易、有效。 The key here is to ensure that the methods and methods of the original form are simple and effective.

国际通行做法是对数据电文申请可信时间戳,可信时间戳必须由法定时间机构负责授时和守时保障的第三方时间戳服务机构签发。 The international common practice is to apply for a trusted time stamp for a data message, and the trusted time stamp must be issued by a third-party time stamp service agency responsible for timing and punctuality protection of legal time agencies. 目前我国已经有这样的时间戳服务机构,在国家授时中心官网( www.ntsc.ac.cn )可以查询。 At present, China has such a timestamp service agency, which can be found on the official website of the National Time Service Center ( www.ntsc.ac.cn ). 在《办法》技术规范第 8.2.2 条也明确了这一点: 应提供按照国家授时中心的标准时间源对需要电子签名的数据电文生成时间戳的功能。 This point is also made clear in Article 8.2.2 of the Technical Specifications of the Measures : " The function of generating time stamps for data messages requiring electronic signatures according to the standard time source of the National Time Service Center shall be provided. "

综上,《办法》中所指数据电文应解读为符合《签名法》数据电文原件形式要求的数据电文,不能是书面形式的数据电文。 In summary, the data message referred to in the Measures shall be interpreted as a data message that meets the requirements of the original data message form of the Signature Law and cannot be a written data message. 需要有可信时间戳来证明数据电文的原件形式。 A trusted time stamp is required to prove the original form of the data message.

3. 电子签名 3. Electronic signature

《签名法》第十三条 Article 13 of the Signature Act 电子签名同时符合下列条件的,视为可靠的电子签名: An electronic signature that meets the following conditions is considered a reliable electronic signature:

(一)电子签名制作数据用于电子签名时,属于电子签名人专有; (1) When the electronic signature production data is used for electronic signature, it belongs to the electronic signer's proprietary;

(二)签署时电子签名制作数据仅由电子签名人控制; (2) The electronic signature production data at the time of signing is controlled only by the electronic signatory;

(三)签署后对电子签名的任何改动能够被发现; (3) Any changes to the electronic signature after signing can be found;

(四)签署后对数据电文内容和形式的任何改动能够被发现。 (4) Any change to the content and form of the data message after signing can be found.

当事人也可以选择使用符合其约定的可靠条件的电子签名。 Parties may also choose to use an electronic signature that meets the agreed reliable conditions. "

第十四条 Article 14 可靠的电子签名与手写签名或者盖章具有同等的法律效力。 A reliable electronic signature has the same legal effect as a handwritten signature or stamp. "

4. 高级电子签名 4. Advanced electronic signature

在《办法》中电子签名使用的是数字证书产生的签名,应称为数字签名,是电子签名的一种。 In the Measures, the electronic signature uses a signature generated by a digital certificate, which should be called a digital signature, which is a type of electronic signature. 数字证书由于有效期的限制和可以随时吊销失效,存在着签名人会以签名证书失效为由拒绝承担签名责任的法律风险。 Due to the limitation of the validity period and the validity of the digital certificate can be revoked at any time, there is a legal risk that the signer will refuse to bear the signature responsibility on the grounds that the signed certificate is invalid. 为了解决数字签名的有效性和长效性问题。 In order to solve the problems of validity and long-term validity of digital signatures. 我国颁布了《 GB/T25064 电子签名格式标准》,其中可分为基本电子签名( BES )格式和高级电子签名格式( ES-T ES-A ES-C ES-X )。 China has promulgated the " GB / T25064 Electronic Signature Format Standard", which can be divided into basic electronic signature ( BES ) format and advanced electronic signature format ( ES-T , ES-A , ES-C , ES-X ). 高级电子签名 = 基本电子签名 + 可信时间戳,这里时间戳的作用就是解决电子签名时间权威问题。 Advanced electronic signature = basic electronic signature + trusted timestamp. The role of timestamp here is to solve the problem of authority of electronic signature time.

在《办法》中的电子签名需要时可靠电子签名而非基本电子签名,具体实现方法是使用国家信息产业主管部门批准的电子认证服务机构( CA )签发的数字证书签名,同时签名的格式是高级电子签名格式,即基本电子签名加上第三方可信时间戳。 The electronic signature in the Measures requires a reliable electronic signature instead of a basic electronic signature. The specific implementation method is to use a digital certificate signed by an electronic certification service agency ( CA ) approved by the State Information Industry Authority , and the signature format is advanced. Electronic signature format, that is, the basic electronic signature plus a trusted third-party timestamp.

5. 技术规范关于签名的规定 5. Technical specifications on signatures

《规范》中的 8.2.2 条款关于时间戳要求: 应提供按照国家授时中心的标准时间源对需要电子签名的数据电文生成时间戳的功能 Article 8.2.2 of the "Specifications" on time stamping requirements: " The function of generating time stamps for data messages requiring electronic signatures according to the standard time source of the National Time Service Center shall be provided . " 这里的时间戳要求必须由国家授时中心负责授时和守时保障是否由时间戳服务机构签发,称为可信时间戳。 The time stamp requirement here must be issued by the time stamp service agency, which is called the trusted time stamp by the national time service center. 招标投标平台在使用时应该注意时间戳是否由时间戳服务机构签发,如果是平台自己签发或非国家授时中心授权的时间戳服务机构签发则存在着系统可以认为修改时间和重新签发时间戳的问题,导致这种方法产生的时间戳存在法律瑕疵。 When using the bidding platform, pay attention to whether the time stamp is issued by the time stamp service agency. If the time stamp service is issued by the platform itself or by a time stamp service agency authorized by a non-national time service center, there are problems that the system can consider to modify the time and reissue the time stamp. , Which causes legal flaws in the timestamps produced by this method.

在国际上通用的做法是使用法定时间源(我国是国家授时中心)负责授时和守时保障的第三方专业时间戳服务机构( www.tsa.cn )签发的时间戳。 The international practice is to use a statutory time source (China is the national time service center ) to issue time stamps issued by a third-party professional time stamp service agency ( www.tsa.cn ) responsible for time and punctuality protection .

 


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